What is the difference between vectorial- and arithmetic VA calculation?

There are two commonly used methods to calculate the apparent power (VA).
The traditional method is the vectorial calculation. Here we are adding the active power (W) from each phase and the reactive power (var) from each phase. As the reactive power vector has a 90° angle vers. the active power we can calculate the hypotenuse (VA). Old meter installations are using this method.
With electronic meters with microprocessor we are able to calculate the VA for each phase individually and then add the VA values. This method is called arithmetic calculation. It is more accurate.
CLOU meters are using the arithmetic calculation. Some meters can be set to vectorial calculation mode.

What is Maximum Demand Measurement?

Demand is a measure of average power consumption over a fixed time interval. Maximum (or peak) demand is the highest demand recorded over the billing period. The billing period is mostly end of the month.

Non-domestic electrical power users often have to pay a maximum demand charge in addition to the charge for the consumed energy. This additional charge is based on the highest amount of power used over a period (e.g. 15 minutes) during the billing period.

CLOU meters can operate with a fixed window or with a sliding window.1

What is the difference?

The fixed window is defined in certain steps (e.g. 15 minutes), starting at the full hour. It can be programmed for the following fixed intervals:

  • 5 minutes
  • 15 minutes
  • 30 minutes
  • 60 minutes

At the end of each fixed window period, the average power for that period is calculated. If this value is higher than the already existing value, it is stored as the MD (maximum demand).

The sliding window is the CLOU default setting. For sub integration period the default is 1 minute.

At the end of a sub integration period the average power is calculated for one integration period. If this value is higher than the already existing value then this is stored as MD. The integration period slides by a window of the sub integration period.

sub periods
Sub periods for sliding window
Integration period1 min2 min5 min6 min12 min
5 min51
15 min153
30 min301565
60 min603012105

The maximum demand register MD will be reset at the set transferring time of each month (1stof each month).
Demand value measured in 6 digits, including 4 integers and 2 decimals.

Which impact has the measurement with fixed- or sliding window on the result?
We take a simple example:
Below we see the energy consumption for a time period from 9 o’clock to 9:30. The reading is once per minute.
energy consumption
The diagram below shows the calculated demand for above load profile between 09:15 and 09:33. We can see that the sliding window calculation shows a MD of 157 kW (blue line) while the fixed window shows a MD of 141 kW (red line).
maximum demand
What do we learn?
With the same load profile the maximum demand values can be different. If the customer has to pay an additional penalty for exceeding 150 kW, he does not have to pay by calculation with fixed window.
With sliding window calculation he needs to pay, because with 157 kW he is exceeding his limit.
The benefit for utilities is that the consumers will not switch-on all machines and appliances at the same time to avoid the penalty. This effect has also big influence on minimizing of peak loads in the grid.
We recommend to use our default setting with 15 minutes interval, sliding by one minute.