When we talk about power we always need to indicate the direction and which sort of power.

We can have:

**Active power, P**

Active power is expressed in watt (W). Sometimes this power is also called “real power”

This is the power you are actually consuming.**Reactive power, Q**

Reactive power is expressed in volt-ampere reactive (var)

This power is stored in components, then released again back to the source through the AC cycle. Capacitors and inductors do this.**Apparent power, S**

Apparent power is expressed in volt-ampere (VA)

(RMS voltage times the RMS current). A power supply must be capable to output the full apparent power delivered to a circuit, not just the active power.

**Quadrant I**

Quadrant I is defined as an area where both powers flow positively. Both are delivered to the consumer load. In many cases the CLOU terminology is *forward*. The power factor is lagging, we have inductive influence.

The IEC literature is using the term ** import**.

In this quadrant we have Import of active power and Import of reactive power.

**Quadrant II**

In quadrant II, reactive power is positive and active power flows negatively. In many cases the CLOU terminology is *reversed*. The IEC literature is using the term ** export**.

**Quadrant III**

In quadrant III, reactive and active power flow negatively (both powers are received from the customer). This is also a *export* condition.

**Quadrant IV**

In quadrant IV, reactive power flows negatively, and active power flows positively. This is a *import* condition.

The diagram below shows the relationship between the phase angle φ, apparent-, active- and reactive power respective energy. The diagram is in accordance with clauses 12 and 14 of IEC 60375. Reference is the current vector (fixed on right-hand line, 0°). The phase angle φ between voltage V and current I is taken to be positive in the mathematical sense (counter clockwise).

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3 Comments on "The four-quadrant diagram in electricity metering"

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Amazing and concise software

Thank you

Very explicit and elaborate!